A Theory of Justice

– John Rawls, A Theory of Justice (Cambridge, Massachusetts: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1971. Revised 1999).

Political Liberalism

– John Rawls, Political Liberalism (New York: Columbia University Press, 1993; Revised 1996, 2005).

Collected Papers

– John Rawls, edited by Samuel Freeman, Collected Papers (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1999).

The Law of Peoples

– John Rawls, The Law of Peoples, (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1999), including the paper “The Idea of Public Reason Revisited.”


Justice as Fairness

John Rawls, "Justice as Fairness," Journal of Philosophy (October 24, 1957), 54 (22): 653-662.

The Sense of Justice

John Rawls, "The Sense of Justice," Philosophical Review 72 (1963): 281–305.

Distributive Justice

The first version of this paper was published in Philosophy, Politics, and Society. Third Series. eds., P. Laslett and W.G. Runciman, pp. 58–82. Oxford, UK: Basil Blackwell, 1967. This essay and the essay “Distributive Justice: Some Addenda” were combined to form a second “Distributive Justice” in Economic Justice, ed., E. Phelps, pp. 319–62. London: Penguin Books, 1973.

The Independence of Moral Theory

John Rawls, "The Independence of Moral Theory," Proceedings and Addresses of the American Philosophical Association 48 (1975): 5–22.

A Kantian Conception of Equality

John Rawls, "A Kantian Conception of Equality," Cambridge Review (1975): 94–9. Reprinted as “A Well-Ordered Society,” in Philosophy, Politics, and Society, Vol.5, edited by P. Laslett and J. Fishkin (Oxford, UK: Blackwell, 1979) pp. 6–20.

Fairness to Goodness

John Rawls, "Fairness to Goodness," Philosophical Review 84 (1975): 536–54.

The Basic Structure as Subject

The first version was published in the American Philosophical Quarterly 14 (1977): 159–65 after it was read before the meeting of the American Philosophical Association, Pacific Division, 1977. A revised and expanded version appears in Values and Morals: Essays in Honor of William Frankena, Charles Stevenson, and Richard B. Brandt, pp. 47–71. ed., A. Goldman and J. Kim. Dordrecht, Holland: Reidel, 1978.

Social Unity and Primary Goods

in Utilitarianism and Beyond, ed., Amartya Sen and Bernard Williams, pp. 159–85. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1982.

The Law of Peoples

– in On Human Rights: The Oxford Amnesty Lectures, 1993, ed., Steven Shute and Susan Hurley (New York: Basic Books, 1993), pp. 41–82.

Reply to Habermas

– John Rawls, "Reply to Habermas," Journal of Philosophy, 93:3 (March 1995).

Burton Dreben: A Reminiscence

– in Juliet Floyd and Sanford Shieh, eds., Future Pasts: Perspectives on the Place of the Analytic Tradition in Twentieth-Century Philosophy, (New York: Oxford University Press, 2000.)


The Original Position

– Ronald Dworkin, “The Original Position,” University of Chicago Law Review 40 (Spring 1973).

Rawls on Justice

– Thomas Nagel, “Rawls on Justice,” Philosophical Review 87 (April 1973).

Distributive Justice

– Robert Nozick, “Distributive Justice,” in his Anarchy, State, and Utopia (New York: Basic Books, 1974).

Understanding Rawls

– Robert Paul Wolff, Understanding Rawls (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1977).

Equality of What?

– Amartya Sen, "Equality of What?" Tanner Lecture on Human Values, May 22, 1979.

Defending Liberalism

– William Galston, “Defending Liberalism,” American Political Science Review 76 (September 1982).

John Rawls

– Alan Ryan, “John Rawls,” in Quentin Skinner, ed., The Return of Grand Theory in the Human Sciences (Cambridge University Press, 1985).

Rawls and Rights

– Rex Martin, Rawls and Rights, (Lawrence, KS: University of Kansas Press, 1985).

The Priority of Democracy to Philosophy

– Richard Rorty, "The Priority of Democracy to Philosophy," in Merrill Peterson and Robert Vaughn, eds., The Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom: Its Evolution and Consequences in American History (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988).

Realizing Rawls

Thomas Pogge, Realizing Rawls (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1989).

Justice Lite

– Robert Bork, “Justice Lite,” First Things 37 (November 1993).

Political Liberalisms

– Bruce Ackerman, “Political Liberalisms,” The Journal of Philosophy 91 (7) (July 1994).

Political Liberalism

– Michael Sandel, “Political Liberalism,” Harvard Law Review 107 (1994).

Natural Law and Public Reason

– Robert P. George and Christopher Wolfe, “Natural Law and Public Reason,” in Robert P. George and Christopher Wolfe, eds., Natural Law and Public Reason (Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press, 2000).

John Rawls, Historian

– Michael Zuckert, "John Rawls, Historian," Claremont Review of Books, Summer, 2002.

The Academic Liberal

– Peter Berkowitz, "The Academic Liberal," The Weekly Standard, December 16, 2002.

The Endless Party

– William Voegeli, "The Endless Party," Claremont Review of Books, December 2004.

John Rawls

– Catherine Audard, John Rawls (Montreal: McGill-Queen's University Press, 2007).


– Samuel Freeman, Rawls (London: Routledge, 2007).

Nozick and Rawls

– David Lewis Schaefer, "Robert Nozick and the Coast of Utopia," New York Sun, April 30, 2008.

Going off the Rawls

– David Gordon, "Going off the Rawls," The American Conservative, July 28, 2008.

God and Rawls

– Peter Berkowitz, "God and Rawls," Hoover Institution Policy Review, June and July 2009.

Rawls on Wall St.

– Steven Mazie, "Rawls on Wall St." New York Times, October 11, 2011.