Who Are We?: The Challenges to America’s National Identity

– Huntington, Samuel P. Who Are We?: The Challenges to America’s National Identity. New York: Simon and Schuster, 2005.
In his seminal work The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order, Samuel Huntington argued provocatively and presciently that with the end of the cold war, “civilizations” were replacing ideologies as the new fault lines in… More

Culture Matters: How Values Shape Human Progress

– Ed. Harrison, Lawrence and Samuel P. Huntington. Culture Matters: How Values Shape Human Progress. New York: Basic Books, 2000.
“The Asian and Russian financial crises have helped fuel a growing debate over the impact of culture on economic performance. In this useful guide to the controversy, many authors hark back to Max Weber’s essay on the Protestant work ethic and the… More

The Clash of Civilizations: The Debate

– Ed. Huntington, Samuel P. The Clash of Civilizations: The Debate.  New York: Foreign Affairs, 1996.
According to Samuel Huntington’s seminal 1993 essay, The Clash of Civilizations, world politics is entering a new phase, in which the great divisions among humankind and the dominating source of international conflict will be cultural.… More

The Clash of Civilizations

– Huntington, Samuel. The Clash of Civilizations: and the Remaking of World Order. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1996.
The classic study of post-Cold War international relations, more relevant than ever in the post-9/11 world, with a new foreword by Zbigniew Brzezinski. Since its initial publication, The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order has become a… More

Understanding Political Development

– Weiner, Myron and Samuel P. Huntington. Understanding Political Development. Boston: Waveland Press, 1994.
The central concern of the essays in this exceptional volume is whether the various theories and concepts that scholars have invented for understanding the enormous political changes that have taken place in developing countries have, indeed, proven useful.… More

The Third Wave: Democratization in the Late Twentieth Century

– Huntington, Samuel P. The Third Wave: Democratization in the Late 20th Century. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1993.
Between 1974 and 1990 more than thirty countries in southern Europe, Latin America, East Asia, and Eastern Europe shifted from authoritarian to democratic systems of government. This global democratic revolution is probably the most important political trend… More

Global Dilemmas

– Eds. Huntington, Samuel and Joseph Nye. Global Dilemmas. Cambridge: Center for International Affairs at Harvard University, 1985.
This collection, marking the 25th anniversary of Harvard’s Center for International Affairs, represents central issues for research in international affairs during this decade. Some issues carry over from themes that have been central to the… More

Living with Nuclear Weapons

– Carnesale, Albert, Paul Doty, Stanley Hoffman, Samuel P. Huntington, Joseph D. Nye Jr., Scott Sagan, Derek Bok. Living with Nuclear Weapons. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1983.
At the request of the President of Harvard University, six Harvard scholars have joined forces to write a book that lays out the facts about nuclear weapons for all concerned citizens who want to think through the nuclear dilemma for themselves. Living with… More

The Strategic Imperative: New Policies for American Security

– Ed. Huntington, Samuel P. The Strategic Imperative: New Policies for American Security. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1982.
This product of Harvard’s new Program in National Security Studies is an interesting collection of essays which, in contrast to the Blechman volume (above), places comparatively greater emphasis on the need to strengthen U.S. defense capabilities and… More


The Clash of Civilizations Revisited

– Huntington, Samuel P. The Clash of Civilizations Revisited. New Perspectives Quarterly v. 30, n. 4 (2013): 46-54.
My view is that relations between countries in the coming decades are most likely to reflect their cultural commitments, their cultural ties and antagonism with other countries rather than other factors. Quite obviously, power will continue to play a central… More

How Countries Democratize

– Huntington, Samuel P. "How Countries Democratize." Political Science Quarterly v. 124, n. 1 (2009): 31.
Between 1974 and 1990 more than thirty countries in southern Europe, Latin America, East Asia, and Eastern Europe shifted from authoritarian to democratic systems of government. This “global democratic revolution” is probably the most important… More

The Hispanic Challenge

– Huntington, Samuel P. "The Hispanic Challenge." Foreign Policy v. 141 (2004): 30-45.
The persistent inflow of Hispanic immigrants threatens to divide the United States into two peoples, two cultures, and two languages. Unlike past immigrant groups, Mexicans and other Latinos have not assimilated into mainstream U.S. culture, forming instead… More

One Nation, Out of Many

– Huntington, Samuel P. "One Nation, Out of Many." The American Enterprise v. 15, n. 6, (2004): 20.
America’s core culture has primarily been the culture of the seventeenth- and eighteenth-century settlers who founded our nation. The central elements of that culture are the Christian religion; Protestant values, including individualism, the work ethic,… More

Are We A Nation “Under God”?

– Huntington, Samuel P. "Are We A Nation "Under God”?" The American Enterprise v. 15, n. 5, (2004): 18.
As this issue of The American Enterprise goes to press this June, the U.S. Supreme Court is considering whether the words “under G-d” in the Pledge of Allegiance are a violation of the separation of church and state. In 2002, a three-judge panel… More

Dead Souls

– Huntington, Samuel P. "Dead Souls." The National Interest v. 75, n. 5 (2004): 5.
Debates over national identity are a pervasive characteristic of our time. In part, they raise rhetorical questions, but they also have profound implications for American society and American policy at home and abroad. Different perceptions–especially… More

Getting Me Wrong [with Reply]

– Huntington, Samuel P and Alan Wolfe. "Getting Me Wrong [with Reply]." Foreign Affairs v. 83, n. 5 (2004): 155-159.
In evaluating a novel, a poem, or a scholarly study, it can be useful and insightful to consider that work in the context of the author’s other writings, if those exist. For social science, the relevant questions concern how the recent work embodies… More

Two Wests

– Huntington, Samuel P and Anthony Giddens.  "Two Wests." New Perspectives Quarterly v. 20, n. 4 (2003): 37-43.
The central division in the West is one which so many people have focused on: the difference in power between the United States and Europe. This division naturally gives rise to antagonisms, and, at times, conflicts, and certainly to differences in… More

Osama bin Laden Has Given Common Identity Back to the West

– Huntington, Samuel P. "Osama bin Laden Has Given Common Identity Back to the West." New Perspectives Quarterly v. 19, n. 1 (2003): 5-8.
Osama bin Laden has declared war on Western civilization, and in particular the United States. If the Muslim community to which Bin Laden is appealing rallies to him, then it will become a clash of civilizations. So far, they appear deeply divided. Bin Laden… More


The Huntington Legacy in Political Development

Francis Fukuyama, Senior Fellow at the Center on Democracy, Development and the Rule of Law at Stanford University, delivered the 2014 Edwin L. Godkin lecture at the JFK Jr. Forum. Fukuyama discussed his recent book, Political Order and Political Decay: From… More

Harvard Kennedy School Forum: The Legacy of Sam Huntington

Political pundits and professors commemorate the late political scientist Samuel P. Huntington. .A panel of Huntington’s former students including CNN host and Time Magazine editor Fareed R. Zakaria, Johns Hopkins Professor Eliot A. Cohen ’77, Political… More