Glazer, Nathan. "The Attack on the Professions." Commentary, 1978.
Excerpt: Professionalism, professionalization, and the professions are increasingly central to any grasp of modern societies, yet persistently elude proper understanding. On the one hand, the professions are old, and considerably antedate modern society, with its scientific base, its huge production of commodities, its mass education, and its complex division of labor—after all, theology, medicine, and law were already solidly established as professions requiring specialized training in the medieval universities.