Books

The Problem of Knowledge in the Philosophical Doctrine of Friedrich Heinrich Jacobi

The Problem of Knowledge in the Philosophical Doctrine of Friedrich Heinrich Jacobi, Doctoral Dissertation, University of Hamburg, 1921. Reprinted in Gesammelte Schriften, Band 2, Philosophie und Gesetz -- Frühe Schriften, Heinrich Meier, ed., Metzler Verlag, 1997. Abstract reprinted in: Leo Strauss: The Early Writings (1921-1932), Michael Zank, ed., State University of New York Press, 2002.

Spinoza’s Critique of Religion

– Spinoza's Critique of Religion, trans. E. M. Sinclair, University of Chicago Press, 1997. Originally published as Die Religionskritik Spinozas als Grundlage seiner Bibelwissenschaft Untersuchungen zu Spinozas Theologisch-Politischem Traktat, Akademie-Verlag, 1930.

Philosophy and Law

Philosophy and Law: Contributions to the Understanding of Maimonides and His Predecessors, trans. Eve Adler, State University of New York Press, 1995. Originally published as Philosophie und Gesetz: Beiträge zum Verständnis Maimunis und Seiner Vorlaüfer, Schocken Verlag, 1935.

The Political Philosophy of Hobbes

The Political Philosophy of Hobbes: Its Basis and Its Genesis, trans. Elsa M. Sinclair, University of Chicago Press, 1952. Originally published as The Political Philosophy of Hobbes: Its Basis and Its Genesis, Oxford, at the Clarendon Press, 1936.

On Tyranny

On Tyranny: An Interpretation of Xenophon's Hiero, Including the Strauss-Kojeve Correspondence, Victor Gourevitch and Michael S. Roth, eds., University of Chicago Press, 1961, reprinted 1991, 2000. Originally Published as On Tyranny: An Interpretation of Xenophon's Hiero, Political Science Classics, 1948.

Natural Right and History

Natural Right and History, University of Chicago Press, 1953.  Reprinted: University of Chicago Press, 1965.

Thoughts on Machiavelli

Thoughts on Machiavelli, The Free Press, 1958.  Reprint: University of Chicago Press, 1978.

What Is Political Philosophy?

What Is Political Philosophy? And Other Studies, The Free Press, 1959.  Reprint: University of Chicago Press, 1988.

History of Political Philosophy

History of Political Philosophy, ed. Leo Strauss and Joseph Cropsey, Rand McNally, 1963.  Second Edition: Rand McNally, 1972.  Third Edition, University of Chicago Press, 1987.

The City and Man

The City and Man, Rand McNally, 1964.  Reprint: University of Chicago Press, 1978.

Xenophon’s Socratic Discourse

Xenophon's Socratic Discourse: An Interpretation of the Oeconomicus, Cornell University Press, 1970.  Reprint: St. Augustine's Press, 1998.

Xenophon’s Socrates

Xenophon's Socrates, Cornell University Press, 1972.  Reprint: St. Augustine's Press, 1998.

Essays

Response to Frankfurt’s “Word of Principle”

– "Antwort auf das 'Prinzipielle Wort' der Frankfurter," Judische Rundschau, Vol. 28, No. 9 (30 Jan. 1923).  Reprinted in Gesammelte Schriften Band 2.  Reprinted in Leo Strauss: The Early Writings.

Review of The Holy

– Review of Das Heilige, by Rudolf Otto, Der Jude, Vol. 7, No. 4 (April 1923).  Reprinted in Gesammelte Schriften: Band 2.

The Zionism of Nordau

– "Der Zionismus bei Nordau," Der Jude, Vol. 7, No. 10-11 (October-November 1923).  Reprinted in Gesammelte Schriften: Band 2.  Reprinted in Leo Strauss: The Early Writings.

Paul de Lagarde

– "Paul de Lagarde," Der Jude, Vol. 8, No. 1 (January 1924).  Reprinted in Gesammelte Schriften: Band 2.  Reprinted in Leo Strauss: The Early Writings.

Sociological Historiography?

– "Soziologische Geschichtsschreibung?" Der Jude, Vol. 8, No. 3 (March 1924).  Reprinted Gesammelte Schriften: Band 2.  Reprinted in Leo Strauss: The Early Writings.

Cohen’s Analysis of Spinoza’s Bible Science

– "Cohens Analyse der Bibel-Wissenchaft Spinozas," Der Jude, Vol. 8, No. 5-6 (May-June 1924).  Reprinted in Gesammelte Schriften: Band 1.  Reprinted in Leo Strauss: The Early Writings.

Zionism and Orthodoxy

– "Zionismus und Orthodoxie," Judische Rundschau, Vol. 29, No. 50 (June 24, 1924).  Reprinted in Gesammelte Schriften: Band 1.

Review of Contemporary Religious Thinkers

– Review of Contemporary Religious Thinkers, by Albert Levkowitz, Der Jude, Vol. 8, No. 7 (July 1924).  Reprinted in Gesammelte Schriften: Band 2.  Reprinted in Leo Strauss: The Early Writings.

Quellen des Zionismus

– "Quellen des Zionismus," Judische Rundschau, Vol. 29, No. 77-78, 79 (Sept. 26, Oct. 3 1924).

On the Argument with European Science

– "On the Argument with European Science," Der Jude, Vol. 8, No. 10 (October 1924).  Reprinted in Gesammelte Schriften: Band 2.  Reprinted in Leo Strauss: The Early Writings.

Comment on Weinberg’s Critique

– "Comment on Weinberg's Critique," Der Judische Student, Vol. 22, No. 1-2 (February 1925).  Reprinted in Gesammelte Schriften: Band 1.  Reprinted in Leo Strauss: The Early Writings.

Ecclesia Militans

– "Ecclesia Militans," Judische Rundschau, Vol. 30, No. 36 (May 8, 1925).  Reprinted in Gesammelte Schriften: Band 2.  Reprinted in Leo Strauss: The Early Writings.

Biblical History and Science

– "Biblical History and Science," Judische Rundschau, Vol 30, No. 88 (November 10, 1925).  Reprinted in Gesammelte Schriften: Band 2.  Reprinted in Leo Strauss: The Early Writings.

On the Bible Science of Spinoza and His Precursors

– "On the Bible Science of Spinoza and His Precursors," Korrespondenzblatt des Vereins zur Grundung Erhaltung einer Akademie fur die Wissenschaft des Judentums, Vol. 7 (1926).  Reprinted in Gesammelte Schriften: Band 1.  Reprinted in Leo Strauss: The Early Writings.

Review of The Future of an Illusion

– Review of The Future of an Illusion, by Sigmund Freud, Der Judische Student, Vol. 25, No. 4 (August 1928).  Reprinted in Leo Strauss: The Early Writings.

Franz Rosenzweig and the Academy for the Science of Judaism

– "Franz Rosenzweig and the Academy for the Science of Judaism," Judische Wochenzeitung fur Kassel, Hessen und Waldeck, Vol. 6, No. 49 (13 December 1929).  Reprinted in Gesammelte Schriften: Band 2.  Reprinted in Leo Strauss: The Early Writings.

Introductions to Pope ein Metaphysiker!

– Introductions to "Pope ein Metaphysiker!" "Sendschreiben an den Herrn Magister Lessing in Leipzig," "Kommentar zu den 'Termini der Logik' des Mose ben Maimon," and "Abhandlung über die Evidenz," Moses Mendelssohn Gesammelte Schriften: Jubiläumsausgabe: Band 2, Berlin: Akademie Verlag, 1931.  Reprinted in Gesammelte Schriften: Band 2.

Review of On the Progress of Metaphysics

– Review of On the Progress of Metaphysics, by Julius Ebbinghaus, Deutsche Literaturzeitung, Vol. 52 (December 27, 1931).  Reprinted in Gesammelte Schriften: Band 2.  Reprinted in Leo Strauss: The Early Writings.

Introductions to Phadon

– Introducitons to Phadon, Abhandlung von der Unkorperlichkeit der menschlichen Seele, Uber einen schriftlichen Aufsatz des Herrn de Luc and Die Seele, Moses Mendelssohn Gesammelte Schriften: Jubiläumsausgabe: Band 2, Berlin: Akademie Verlag, 1932.  Reprinted in Gesammelte Schriften: Band 2.

Notes on Carl Schmitt, The Concept of the Political

– "Notes on Carl Schmitt, The Concept of the Political," Archiv fur Sozialwissenschaft und Sozialpolitik, Vol. 67, No. 6 (August-September 1932).  Reprinted in Gesammelte Schriften: Band 3.  Reprinted in Heinrich Meier, Carl Schmitt and Leo Strauss: The Hidden Dialogue, University of Chicago Press, 1995.

The Testament of Spinoza

– "The Testament of Spinoza," Bayerische Israelitische Gemeindezeitung, Vol. 8, No. 21 (1 November 1932).  Reprinted in Gesammelte Schriften: Band 1.  Reprinted in Leo Strauss: The Early Writings.

Quelques Remarques sur la Science Politique de Hobbes

– "Quelques Remarques sur la Science Politique de Hobbes a propos du livre recent de M. Lubienski," trans. Alexandre Kojève, Recherches Philosphiques, Vol. 2 (April 1933).  Original Typescript: "Einige Anmerkungen uber die Politische Wissenschaft des Hobbes."  Reprinted in Gesammelte Schriften: Band 3.

Eine vermißte Schrift Farabis

– "Eine vermißte Schrift Farabis," Monatsschrift fur Geschichte und Wissenschaft des Judentums, Vol. 80, No. 1 (January 1936).  Reprinted in Gesammelte Schriften: Band 2.

Persecution and the Art of Writing

– "Persecution and the Art of Writing," Social Research, Vol. 8, No. 4 (November 1941).  Reprinted in Persecution and the Art of Writing.

The Law of Reason in the Kuzari

– "The Law of Reason in the Kuzari," Proceedings of the American Academy for Jewish Research, Vol. 13 (1943).  Reprinted in Persecution and the Art of Writing.

On Classical Political Philosophy

– "On Classical Political Philosophy," Social Research, Vol. 12, No. 1 (February 1945).  Reprinted (revised) in What Is Political Philosophy?

Farabi’s Plato

– "Farabi's Plato," Louis Ginzberg Jubilee Volume, American Academy for Jewish Research, 1945.  Reprinted, revised and abbreviated, in Persecution and the Art of Writing.

Political Philosophy and History

– "Political Philosophy and History," Journal of the History of Ideas, Vol. 10, No. 1 (January 1949).  Reprinted in What Is Political Philosophy?

The Social Science of Max Weber

– "The Social Science of Max Weber," Measure, Vol. 2, No. 2 (Spring 1951).  Reprinted in Natural Right and History  (Ch. 2).

Review of David Grene: Man in His Pride

– Review of Man in His Pride: A Study in the Political Philosophy of Thucydides and Plato, by David Grene, Social Research, Vol. 18, No. 3 (September 1951).  Reprinted in What Is Political Philosophy?

Walker’s Machiavelli

– "Walker's Machiavelli," review of Discourses of Niccolò Machiavelli, ed. L. J. Walker, Review of Metaphysics, Vol. 6, No. 3 (March 1953).

On a Forgotten Kind of Writing

– "On a Forgotten Kind of Writing," Chicago Review, Vol. 8, No. 1 (Winter-Spring 1954).  Reprinted in What Is Political Philosophy?

Social Science and Humanism

– "Social Science and Humanism," The State of the Social Sciences, ed. Leonard D. White, University of Chicago Press, 1956.  Reprinted in The Rebirth of Classical Political Rationalism.

Kurt Riezler, 1882-1955

– "Kurt Riezler, 1882-1955," Social Research, Vol. 23, No. 1 (Spring 1956).  Reprinted in What Is Political Philosophy?

How Farabi Read Plato’s Laws

– "How Farabi Read Plato's Laws," Mélanges Louis Massignon, Institut Francais de Damas, 1957, Vol. 3.  Reprinted in What Is Political Philosophy?

Machiavelli’s Intention: The Prince

– "Machiavelli's Intention: The Prince," American Political Science Review, Vol. 51, No. 1 (March 1957).  Reprinted in Thoughts on Machiavelli (Ch. 2).

Review of J. L. Talmon: The Nature of Jewish History

– Review of The Nature of Jewish History -- Its Universal Significance, by J. L. Talmon, Journal of Modern History, Vol. 29, No. 3 (September 1957).  Reprinted in Studies in Platonic Political Philosophy.

Locke’s Doctrine of Natural Law

– "Locke's Doctrine of Natural Law," American Political Science Review, Vol. 52, No. 2 (June 1958).  Reprinted in What Is Political Philosophy?

The Liberalism of Classical Political Philosophy

– "The Liberalism of Classical Political Philosophy," Review of Metaphysics, Vol. 12, No. 3 (March 1959).  Reprinted in Liberalism Ancient and Modern.  Review essay on E. A. Havelock: The Liberal Temper in Greek Politics.

What Is Political Philosophy?

– "What Is Political Philosophy?" What Is Political Philosophy, The Free Press, 1959.  Revised version of the Judah L. Magnes Lectures given at the Hebrew University in Jerusalem in December 1954-January 1955.  Hebrew translation published in Iyyun in April 1955.

On the Basis of Hobbes’s Political Philosophy

– "On the Basis of Hobbes's Political Philosophy," What Is Political Philosophy?, The Free Press, 1959.  First printing of English original of "Les fondements de la philosophie politque de Hobbes," Critique, Vol. 10, No. 83 (April 1954).

“Relativism”

– "Relativism," Relativism and the Study of Man, ed. Helmut Schoeck and James W. Wiggins, Van Nostrand, 1961.  Reprinted in The Rebirth of Classical Political Rationalism.

Liberal Education and Responsibility

– "Liberal Education and Responsibility," Education: The Challenge Ahead, ed. C. Scott Fletcher, Norton, 1962.  Reprinted in Liberalism Ancient and Modern.

An Epilogue

– "An Epilogue," Essays on the Scientific Study of Politics, ed. Herbert J. Storing, Holt Rinehart and Winston, 1962.  Reprinted in Liberalism Ancient and Modern.

How to Begin to Study The Guide of the Perplexed

– "How to Begin to Study The Guide of the Perplexed," Moses Maimonides: The Guide of the Perplexed, trans. Shlomo Pines, University of Chicago Press, 1963.  Reprinted in Liberalism Ancient and Modern.

Perspectives on the Good Society

– "Perspectives on the Good Society," Criterion, Vol. 2, No. 3 (Summer 1963).  Reprinted in Liberalism Ancient and Modern.

Introduction to History of Political Philosophy

– "Introduction," History of Political Philosophy, ed. Leo Strauss and Joseph Cropsey, Rand McNally, 1963.  Second Edition: Rand McNally, 1972.  Third Edition, University of Chicago Press, 1987.

Plato

– "Plato," History of Political Philosophy, ed. Leo Strauss and Joseph Cropsey, Rand McNally, 1963.  Second Edition: Rand McNally, 1972.  Third Edition, University of Chicago Press, 1987.

Marsilius of Padua

– "Marsilius of Padua," History of Political Philosophy, ed., Leo Strauss and Joseph Cropsey, Rand McNally, 1963.  Second Edition: Rand McNally, 1972.  Third Edition, University of Chicago Press, 1987.

A Note on Lucretius

– "A Note on Lucretius," Natur und Geshichte: Karl Lowith zum 70, Geburtsag.  W. Kohlhammer Verlag, 1967.  Reprinted in "Notes on Lucretius," Liberalism Ancient and Modern.

Notes on Maimonides’ Book of Knowledge

– "Notes on Maimonides' Book of Knowledge," Studies in Mysticism and Religion Presented to Gershom G. Scholem on His Seventieth Birthday by Pupils, Colleagues, and Friends, Magnes Press, The Hebrew University, 1967.  Reprinted in Studies in Platonic Political Philosophy.

John Locke as “Authoritarian”

– "John Locke as 'Authoritarian,'" review of John Locke: Two Tracts on Government, by Philip Abrams, Intercollegiate Review, Vol. 4, No. 1 (November-December 1967).

Natural Law

– "Natural Law," International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences, Vol. 2 (1968).   Reprinted in Studies in Platonic Political Philosophy.

On the Minos

Liberalism Ancient and Modern, Basic Books, 1968.  Reprint: University of Chicago Press, 1995.

Notes on Lucretius

– "Notes on Lucretius," Liberalism Ancient and Modern, Basic Books, 1968.  Reprint: University of Chicago Press, 1995.

Greek Historians

– "Greek Historians," review of Greek Historical Writing: A Historiographical Essay Based on Xenophon's "Hellenica," by W. P. Henry, Review of Metaphysics, Vol. 21, No. 4 (June 1968).

A Giving of Accounts

– "A Giving of Accounts," with Jacob Klein, The College, Vol. 22, No. 1 (April 1970).

On the Euthydemus

– "On the Euthydemus," Interpretation, Vol. 1, No. 1 (Summer 1970).

Niccolo Machiavelli

History of Political Philosophy, ed. Leo Strauss and Joseph Cropsey, Rand McNally, 1963.  Second Edition: Rand McNally, 1972.  Third Edition, University of Chicago Press, 1987.

Introductions to Morgenstunden and An die Freunde Lessings

– Introductions to Morgenstunden and An die Freunde Lessings as well as Sache Gottes oder die gerettete Vorsehung, Moses Mendelssohn: Gesammelte Schriften Jubilaumsausgabe, Band 3, 1974.  Reprinted in Leo Strauss: Gesammelte Schriften, Band 2.

The Three Waves of Modernity

– "The Three Waves of Modernity," Political Philosophy: Six Essays, ed. Hilail Gildin, Pegasus-Bobbs-Merrill, 1975.

Xenophon’s Anabasis

– "Xenophon's Anabasis," Interpretation, Vol. 4, No. 3 (Spring 1975).  Reprinted in Studies in Platonic Political Philosophy.

Progress or Return?

– "Progress or Return? The Contemporary Crisis in Western Civilization," Modern Judaism, Vol. 1, No. 1 (May 1981).  Reprinted in The Rebirth of Classical Political Rationalism.

Correspondence Concerning Modernity

– "Correspondence Concerning Modernity," Independent Journal of Philosophy, Vol. 4 (1983).  Reprinted in Leo Strauss: Gesammelte Schriften, Band 3.

Exoteric Teaching

– "Exoteric Teaching," Interpretation, Vol. 14, No. 1 (January 1986).  Reprinted in The Rebirth of Classical Political Rationalism.

Correspondence

– "Correspondence," Independent Journal of Philosophy, Vol. 5-6 (1988).  Correspondence with Karl Lowith on Nietzsche from 1935.

Thucydides: The Meaning of Political History

– "Thucydides: The Meaning of Political History," The Rebirth of Classical Political Rationalism: An Introduction to the Thought of Leo Strauss, Thomas L. Pangle, ed., University of Chicago Press, 1989.

The Problem of Socrates: Five Lectures

– "The Problem of Socrates: Five Lectures," The Rebirth of Classical Political Rationalism: An Introduction to the Thought of Leo Strauss, Thomas L. Pangle, ed., University of Chicago Press, 1989. Published, complete and unedited, as "The Origins of Political Science and the Problem of Socrates: Six Public Lectures," Interpretation, Vol. 23, No. 2 (Winter 1996).

On the Euthyphron

– "On the Euthyphron," The Rebirth of Classical Political Rationalism: An Introduction to the Thought of Leo Strauss, Thomas L. Pangle, ed., University of Chicago Press, 1989. Complete, unedited version published as "An Untitled Lecture on Plato's Euthyphron," Interpretation, Vol. 24, No. 1 (Fall 1996).

How to Begin to Study Medieval Philosophy

– "How to Begin to Study Medieval Philosophy," The Rebirth of Classical Political Rationalism: An Introduction to the Thought of Leo Strauss, Thomas L. Pangle, ed., University of Chicago Press, 1989. Complete, unedited version published as "How to Study Medieval Philosophy," Interpretation, Vol. 23, No. 3 (Spring 1996).

Two Letters to Eric Voegelin

– "Two Letters to Eric Voegelin," Eric Voegelin, Alfred Schutz, Leo Strauss and Aron Gurwitsch: Briefwechsel uber Die Neue Wissenschaft der Politik, Verlag Karl Alber, 1993.

Why We Remain Jews

– "Why We Remain Jews: Can Jewish Faith and History Still Speak to Us?" Leo Strauss: Political Philosopher and Jewish Thinker, ed. Kenneth L. Deutsch and Walter Nicgorski, Rowman and Littlefield, 1994.

The Problem of Socrates

– "The Problem of Socrates," Interpretation, Vol. 22, No. 2 (Spring 1995).  Talk given on April 17, 1970, at St. John's College, Annapolis.

Existentialism

– "Existentialism," Interpretation, Vol. 22, No. 3 (Spring 1995).  Talk given in February 1956 at the University of Chicago.  Reprinted in The Rebirth of Classical Political Rationalism.

Der Konspektivismus

– "Der Konspektivismus," Gesammelte Schriften: Band 2, Heinrich Meier, ed.,  1997.

Cohen und Maimuni

– "Cohen und Maimuni," Gesammelte Schriften: Band 2, Heinrich Meier, ed.,  1997.

Freud on Moses and Monotheism

– "Freud on Moses and Monotheism," Jewish Philosophy and the Crisis of Modernity, Kenneth Hart Green, ed., State University of New York Press, 1997.

German Nihilism

– "German Nihilism," Interpretation, Vol. 29, No. 3 (Spring 1999).  Corrections to "German Nihilism," Interpretation, Vol. 30, No. 1 (Fall 2000).  Talk given on February 26, 1941 at the New School for Social Research.

Reason and Revelation

– "Reason and Revelation," Leo Strauss and the Theologico-Political Problem, Cambridge University Press, 2006.  Talk given on April 27, 1948, at Hartford Theological Seminary.

What Can We Learn from Political Theory?

– "What Can We Learn from Political Theory?" Review of Politics, Vol. 69, No. 4 (Fall 2007).  Talk given in July 1942 at the New School for Social Research.

Die Religionskritik des Hobbes

– "Die Religionskritik des Hobbes: Ein Beitrag zum verstandnis der Aufklarung," Gesammelte Schriften: Band 3, Heinrich Meier, ed., 2008.

Restatement

– "Restatement," Interpretation, Vol. 36, No. 1 (Fall 2008).  Reprinted in On Tyranny: An Interpretation of Xenophon's Hiero, Including the Strauss-Kojeve Correspondence, Victor Gourevitch and Michael S. Roth, eds., University of Chicago Press, 1961, reprinted 1991, 2000.  

Leo Strauss on Modern Political Science

– Svetozar Minkov and Rasoul Namazi eds., "Leo Strauss on Modern Political Science: TwoPreviously Unpublished Manuscripts," Review of Politics, 79, 2017.b

Commentary

Philosophy and Politics I and II

– Victor Gourevitch, "Philosophy and Politics I," Review of Metaphysics, Vol. 22, No. 1 (Sep. 1968). Victor Gourevitch, "Philosophy and Politics I," Review of Metaphysics, Vol. 22, No. 2 (Dec. 1968).

Strauss’s Machiavelli

– Harvey C. Mansfield, "Strauss's Machiavelli," Political Theory, Nov. 1975, pp. 372-384.

Philosophy and History

– Nathan Tarcov, "Philosophy and History: Tradition and Interpretation in the Work of Leo Strauss, Polity, Vol. 16, No. 1 (Autumn, 1983).

Leo Strauss and the History of Political Philosophy

– Nathan Tarcov and Thomas L. Pangle, "Epilogue: Leo Strauss and the History of Political Philosophy," History of Political Philosophy, Third Edition, ed. Leo Strauss and Joseph Cropsey, University of Chicago Press, 1987.

Strauss’s Laws

– Mark Blitz, "Strauss's Laws," Political Science Reviewer, Spring 1991.

Guide for the Perplexed

– Steven J. Lenzner, "Guide for the Perplexed," Claremont Review of Books, 23 August 2007.

Straussianism

– Mark C. Henrie, "Straussianism," First Principles, 5 May 2011.

Crisis of the Strauss Divided

– Harry V. Jaffa, Crisis of the Strauss Divided: Essays on Leo Strauss and Straussianism, East and West, Rowman and Littlefield Publishers, 2012.

Strauss on the Prince

– Harvey C. Mansfield, "Strauss on the Prince," The Review of Politics / Volume 75 / Special Issue 04 / Fall 2013 pp 641-665

Multimedia

Leo Strauss as Teacher

– "Leo Strauss as Teacher," Conference hosted by the Leo Strauss Center at the University of Chicago, April 22-23, 2011.

Ancients and Moderns: Did Leo Strauss Exaggerate the Break?

– "Ancients and Moderns: Did Leo Strauss Exaggerate the Break?," A Faculty Roundtable, featuring Leo Paul de Alvarez, Jonathan Culp, Richard Dougherty, Tiffany Jones Miller, and Thomas G. West, University of Dallas, February 22, 2012.